LED tunnel lights, it is used for floodlights in tunnels, workshops, large warehouses, venues, metallurgy and various plant areas, engineering construction, etc. It is most suitable for landscape lighting such as urban landscape, billboards and building facades.
The tunnel lighting design considers factors such as length, line type, decoration, road type, unmanned road, connecting road structure, design speed, traffic volume and vehicle type. It also considers the color of the light source, the lighting, the layout, the lighting level, the brightness outside the tunnel, etc. factor. Eyes adapt. Tunnel lighting design is to solve this series of problems.
Energy saving in tunnel lighting is a requirement for light sources, luminaires and lighting methods. Energy saving includes lighting design energy saving and management energy saving. Energy efficiency in lighting design is the most important energy saving measure. It includes innovative, reliable design concepts and reasonable standard values, as well as efficient light source use and high efficiency. Luminaires, large reflectivity and lighting control save energy. Compared with the traditional light source, the biggest advantage of LED is energy saving and stability. Therefore, based on the advantages and characteristics of LED, the efficiency of LED chip is improved, the reasonable lighting design is improved, and the overall efficiency of the lamp is improved. LED tunnel lighting is an important part of LED lighting.
The luminous efficiency of LED light sources is a basic indicator for measuring the efficiency of tunneling sources. According to the actual requirements of LED tunnel light, the luminous efficiency of LED tunnel light must reach a certain level to meet the needs of replacing traditional road light sources such as sodium lamps and metal halite lamps.
In recent years, with the development of LED chip, package and lamp distribution technology, the efficiency of LED light source has been improved. For example, spark series LED tunnel lights, using high-quality chips, reasonable lighting distribution and structural design, the average light efficiency is much higher than the current LED tunnel light products.
First, there are several special visual problems in ordinary tunnels.
(1) Before entering the tunnel (daytime): Due to the large difference in brightness between the inside and outside of the tunnel, the "black hole" phenomenon can be seen from the outside of the tunnel when the tunnel is not illuminated.
(2) After entering the tunnel (daytime): The car enters the tunnel from the outside and is not even dark. After a certain period, the situation inside the tunnel can be clearly seen, which is called “compliance lag” phenomenon.
(3) Tunnel exit: During the day, when the car passes a long tunnel and approaches the exit, the exit looks like a “white hole” due to the extremely high external brightness seen from the exit, and it will show strong glare. The driver feels uncomfortable; during the day, the tunnel exit is not a bright hole, but a black hole. Therefore, the driver cannot clearly see the obstacles outside the road and the obstacles on the road.
The above special visual problems put forward higher requirements for tunnel lighting. To effectively deal with these visual problems, you can experience the following aspects.
Tunnel lighting is generally divided into five parts: the approaching section, the inlet section, the transition section, the intermediate section and the exit section. Each part has its own function:
(1) Approach segment: The approach segment of the tunnel refers to a section of the road near the entrance to the tunnel. The starting point for the close part is the distance of the lighting parking line of sight. The lighting parking distance is calculated according to the road tunnel lighting design rules. At the same time, it is pointed out that the adjacent section is located outside the tunnel, and its brightness comes from the natural conditions outside the tunnel, without artificial illumination. However, because the brightness of the adjacent portion is closely related to the illumination in the aperture, it is also commonly referred to as the illumination portion.
(2) Inlet section: The first illumination section after entering the tunnel. In the past, the entrance portion was called the adaptation part and required artificial lighting.
(3) Transition section: The transition section is the illumination section between the entrance section and the intermediate section. This segment is used to solve the driver's visual adaptation problem from the high brightness of the entrance section to the low brightness of the middle section.
(4) Middle part: After the driver drives through the entrance part and the transition part, the driver's vision completes the dark adaptation process. The task of mid-section lighting is to ensure the safety and stability of the tunnel.
(5) Export section: During the day, the driver can gradually adapt to the strong light at the exit to eliminate the “white hole” phenomenon; at night, the driver can see the outside route and obstacles on the road, eliminating the “black hole” at the exit. This is a common practice. E is the use of lights outside the street light as continuous illumination.
During the day, the lighting hall at the exit of the tunnel should be higher than the lighting hall at the entrance to the tunnel. The night lighting hall should be lower than the inner lighting hall of the tunnel. When there is street lighting outside the tunnel, the brightness of the road surface inside the tunnel should not be less than twice the brightness of the open air lighting.
Two. Problems in the process of vehicles crossing the tunnel.
1. Several problems in tunnel construction.
Black hole phenomenon
During the day, the driver's eyes have adapted to more than 100,000 kilograms of CD/m2 natural light. When the human eye turns to a tunnel environment with only a small amount of CD/m2 brightness, due to the limited perception of the human eye to weak brightness, a compliance hysteresis occurs, and a black cave can be seen, and the state of the cave cannot be recognized. The phenomenon of seeing all black caves in such a bright environment is called black hole phenomenon. Once a black hole occurs, the driver's visual interval shortens as the vehicle approaches the tunnel and the driver cannot drive safely. The black hole phenomenon is a visual problem before the tunnel enters. This is the most important issue in tunnel lighting. In order to avoid the occurrence of black holes, sufficient brightness should be ensured in the interval from the entrance of the tunnel to the safe braking interval of the car.
When entering the tunnel, due to the large difference in brightness between the inside and outside of the tunnel, the compliance is poor, and the driver's vision cannot quickly adapt to the brightness of the tunnel, so it is difficult to see the inside of the tunnel. In order to avoid this, the tunnel entrance brightness should be slowly reduced with the visual compliance speed, the brightness should be smoothly transitioned, and the brightness reduction should be stopped step by step, but the ratio of the first brightness to the second brightness should be gradually reduced. SS shall not exceed 3:1, the brightness of the wall below 2m shall not be lower than the corresponding uniform road brightness.
2. Problems during tunnel construction.
The brightness of the daytime in the tunnel is higher than that of the nighttime, and the brightness at night is lower than the daytime. Considering the exhaust gas emitted by vehicles in a large flow and long tunnel, the exhaust gas cannot quickly dissipate to form smoke, absorb and scatter light, reduce visibility, and make visual recognition difficult. The headlights are greatly affected by the exhaust and cannot meet the visual requirements. The brightness of the road in front of 100 meters is halved and is usually illuminated by the road. Effect of 2 times brightness compensation on exhaust gas.
Three. Several problems should be paid attention to when the tunnel exit approaches.
The exit looks like a bright hole with strong glare, the exit becomes a white hole, which is called a white hole phenomenon; with the white hole as the background, the motor vehicle becomes an easily recognizable black outline, but it is difficult to see the outline of the car. The truck followed the truck. At the exit of a tunnel with a large traffic flow, the illumination for identifying vehicles of the same size is called exit illumination, and the interval length of the exit illumination is several tens of meters.
4. The problem before leaving the tunnel at night.
In the evening, before leaving the Langland Tunnel to the unlit road, the outside of the tunnel became a black hole, and the alignment of the road and the existing obstacles could not be seen. At this point, the illumination on the road outside the tunnel should be stopped, the interval should be greater than the safety brake workshop, and approximately equal to a few seconds of travel. Ming, the correct brightness is achieved.
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